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Carla J. Mulford

Carla J. Mulford

Professor of English
and Women's, Gender, and Sexuality Studies
Honors Advisor
213 Burrowes Building
(814) 865-2082, but prefer email

Mailroom: 430 Burrowes Building

Carla J. Mulford

Fall 2021 Office Hours

Fall Semester Office Hours Tues. and Thurs. 1:30 to 2:30 PM. By zoom on other days. To arrange a meeting, please email (

Curriculum Vitae


Ph.D. English, University of Delaware
M.A. English, University of Delaware
B.A./B.S. English and Education, highest honors, University of Delaware

Professional Bio


My research and teaching areas cross several fields: early modern studies; early American (including African American and Native) studies; and contemporary Native studies. Across my career, I have published eleven books and well over sixty articles and chapters in books on a variety of subjects. I'm very grateful to have been named the 2018 Honored Scholar in Early American Literature by the MLA Forum in American Literature to 1800. My scholarship and my teaching enhance each other, as evidenced by my having been honored with two teaching awards, the Malvin and Lea P. Bank Outstanding Teaching Award, 2016, and the College of Liberal Arts Teaching Award, 2005.


My Research and Professional Service

I've studied the British Empire for several decades, most recently from the perspective as a scholar of Benjamin Franklin. Currently, my work is moving into the history of science (electricity, particularly) and into study of the Mediterranean arena. My first monograph on Franklin, Benjamin Franklin and the Ends of Empire (Oxford University Press, 2015; paperback, 2019), examines Franklin's attitudes about trade and populations in the context of the growing number of debates about what it meant to be both liberal and British during the eighteenth century. The book's favorable reviews have amply rewarded the two decades I spent writing the book. My new monograph in progress, Benjamin Franklin's Electrical Diplomacy, embraces my intersecting interests in the histories of science, politics, material culture, and print media. I have delivered talks related to this book at several locations, including the American Philosophical Society (Franklin's society), Library Company of Philadelphia (Franklin's library), the Joseph Priestley House in Northumberland, Pa., and conferences of the Organization of American Historians, the American Society for Eighteenth Century Studies, and the Pennsylvania Historical Association.

My scholarship on Franklin has benefited from fellowships from the National Endowment for the Humanities, the American Council of Learned Societies, the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation, the American Philosophical Society, and the Library Company of Philadelphia. Most recently, I received an Alexander von Humboldt / Yale Macmillan Center History Network fellowship to assist my research toward a new book on Franklin and the Mediterranean.

Additional work on Franklin includes The Cambridge Companion to Benjamin Franklin (2009) and over twenty essays, chapters in books, and review essays on Franklin.

I won the 2012 Bibliographical Society of America's William L. Mitchell Prize, for scholarship in early British periodicals. The prize was awarded for my essay, "Benjamin Franklin's Savage Eloquence: Hoaxes from the Press at Passy, 1782," published in Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, 152, iv (Dec. 2008), 490-520.

I have served a number of professional societies, including the Society of Early Americanists (SEA), which I developed and eventually served as Founding President. I also served the American Literature to 1800 Division of the Modern Language Association. I am currently serving the Advisory Council of the McNeil Center for Early American Studies, a group centered at the University of Pennsylvania. And I have been elected again to serve on the Council of the Pennsylvania Historical Association. The journal editorial boards I have served include American Literature, Early American Literature, Early American Studies, Eighteenth-Century Studies, and The Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography. I am a member of the American Antiquarian Society and a shareholder in the Library Company of Philadelphia.


My Undergraduate Teaching

Undergraduate teaching has enabled me to test my research and pedagogical capabilities in classes that range from the "great traditions" courses for freshmen to the senior seminar in English.  Current areas my students and I are exploring at the undergraduate level relate to the eighteenth-century British novel, contemporary Native studies, environmental studies, Benjamin Franklin, and the American West.  I also love teaching the undergraduate literature survey, because I think undergraduates' experience of literary history reveals much about today's culture and the crisis in literary and history education.

I like to challenge students to think about ethical matters as these relate to literature and culture. In several of my courses, the students have worked on blogs associated with what we have been studying. This is a way to bring out to the public the scholarly endeavors that otherwise would remain inside the proverbial ivy tower.

I have directed fifteen honors theses for the Schreyer Honors College.  Some of these students went on to graduate school, some entered the business world, some became teachers, one entered the Peace Corps, and another was awarded a Fulbright international scholarship.


My Graduate Teaching

My courses at the graduate level introduce students to topics in conversation among scholars, and many students who take my classes go on to publish their essays in scholarly journals. Indeed, more than twelve students from seminars offered in the last ten years have published papers originally written in my classes.  But publication is only one goal of my pedagogy.

My primary goal is that students develop mastery of the field by engaging collaboratively in their learning experiences.  My courses in the last several years have related to the British and American eighteenth-century novel, imperial enlightenments, early environmental writing, literacies in early American studies, and the history of science. In 2015 and 2017, I connected several of these topics together in seminars called "Race, Environment, Enlightenment." One student from the 2015 seminar published the seminar paper in a collection of essays with Cambridge University Press. The seminar in the fall 2021 semester treats British imperialism and discourses of race and enlightenment.


My exemplary PhD Candidates work in diverse fields.

Danielle Carder is working toward a dual-title degree in English and Women's, Gender, and Sexuality Studies. Her dissertation focuses on the years surrounding the American Civil War, with particular attention to writings that evoked a gendered ethics of care even as the medical field experienced significant change as a result of the war experience.

Alex Sibo is examining Mary Wollstonecraft's pedagogy in the context of eighteenth-century aesthetics and ideology. Alex studies and writes in the pedagogy of literature and composition as evidenced by his forthcoming publication in the field of online writing instruction, "The Literacy Load is Too Damn High!" slated for publication in "PARS in Practice: More Resources and Strategies for Online Writing Instructors." He has been honored with the 2020/21 Cindy and Dickie Selfe Fellowship in support of scholars from historically marginalized communities; he'll be attending the Digital Media and Composition Institute at Ohio State University.


My Dissertation Students!

I have directed dissertations in several fields, including the area of my own dissertation specialty (transatlantic eighteenth century and enlightenment studies), along with nineteenth- and twentieth-century American studies, and African American, Native American, and Asian American studies.  My students are flourishing in careers of their own at a variety of academic institutions, where they originally took tenure-line positions. All of my students work in multiple genres and media (from traditional literary culture to visual media and cyber culture) and multiple centuries. Their work has benefited from the range of opportunities Penn State graduate study in English can offer them.

I'm so proud of all of my students. They have taken what they learned at Penn State and built new paths of inquiry of their own. They have had fruitful careers in the academy and in academic service. What's more important to me is that they are just AMAZING people!

Mark Sturges earned his PhD in American literature of the environment and environmental studies in 2013. Mark has already won a "best article" award for an essay that began as a seminar paper in my 2009 graduate seminar, "Nature's Nation." Check out his brilliant essay on Jefferson in the Virginia Magazine of History and Biography. Mark is a tenured Assistant Professor of English and Environmental Studies at St. Lawrence University.

Mathew C. RudeWalker earned his PhD in 2013 in Native studies. Mat is interested in historicizing contemporary Native sovereignty and resistance efforts by revealing a persistent pattern of resistance against land takeovers from the seventeenth century onward. Mat was a Post-Doctoral Teaching Fellow at Penn State for a time, and he is currently an assistant teaching professor at Kennesaw State University.

Rochelle Raineri Zuck (PhD 2008) is Associate Professor of English at Iowa State University in Ames, Iowa, where she moved in 2019 from her tenured Associate Professor position at the University of Minnesota, Duluth. She teaches courses in American literature and culture with particular emphasis on literature of the nineteenth century. Her first book, a significant revision of her dissertation written at Penn State, was published in 2016 as Divided Sovereignties: Race, Nationhood, and Citizenship in Nineteenth-Century America by the University of Georgia Press.

Steven Thomas (PhD 2006) is currently Associate Professor and Interim Chair of English at Wagner College, where he moved from his tenure-line post at the College of St. Benedict/St. Johns University in Minnesota. Steve's dissertation was on the literature of British imperialism of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, but he has a variety of interests, including the work of Oromo immigrants to America from Ethiopia, the literature of the Harlem Renaissance, James Bond, and media studies. To help him complete his book-in-progress on the impact of Ethiopia in American literature, Steve was granted a Barra Sabbatical Fellowship from the McNeil Center for Early American Studies at Penn (for 2018-2019).

Youngsuk Chae (PhD 2005) published her dissertation as her first book, Politicizing Asian American Literature with Routledge in 2011. Professor of English now, she is currently Assistant Chair of her department at the University of North Carolina, Pembroke.

Cedrick May (PhD 2003) also published his dissertation as his first book, Evangelism and Resistance in the Black Atlantic, University of Georgia Press, 2008. Cedrick is Professor of English and Digital Arts at the University of Texas at Arlington, his alma mater. Cedrick gained national attention for his archival discovery of materials by Jupiter Hammon, an enslaved African, and he has given interviews with media outlets such as the New York Times and National Public Radio. His edition of Hammon's writings was published as The Complete Works of Jupiter Hammon in 2017. Most recently, Cedrick has turned his attention to film and has won awards for several of his film-making projects.

Elizabeth Archuleta (PhD 2002) resigned her tenure-line assistant professorship at Arizona State University to develop a private business in diversity training. Since then she has come back to academia, where she works in the office of the Center for Excellence in Higher Education at the University of Utah.

Angela Vietto (PhD 2000), Professor of English at Eastern Illinois University, published her dissertation as her first book, Women and Authorship in Revolutionary America, Routledge, 2006. Angela compiled two books with me, the Dictionary of Literary Biography volume on American women prose writers to 1820 and our huge anthology, Early American Writings. Angela is currently teaching in three areas, rhetoric, women's studies, and early American studies.

Amy E. Winans (PhD 1998), a skilled early Americanist with an interest in African American studies, progressed to Associate Professor of English at Susquehanna University prior to her untimely death in March 2015.

Nicholas Rombes (PhD 1994), my first dissertation student at Penn State, wrote on Enlightenment culture for his thesis. He has since published books on the Ramones and media studies. He has special interests in cinema in our digital age. Nick is Professor and has served for many years as chair of his department at the University of Detroit Mercy.

Areas of Specialization

American Literature Before 1900

Colonial studies through the nineteenth century, with specialties in early African American, Native American, and women's studies, in addition to scholarship associated with environmental studies, the history of science, the history of the book, and early modern liberalism. Dissertations directed in these fields include those by Cedrick May, Amy E. Winans, Steven Thomas, and Rochelle Zuck. More recently, Mark Sturges's thesis, Dwelling on the Land, explored environmental writings from the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries and examined the twin concerns of environmental conservation and the formulation of land policies. And Mathew C. RudeWalker's thesis, Where Our Dead Lie Buried, examined Native discourse and activism over language and land appropriation.

Book History and Textual Studies

Winner of the 2012 William L. Mitchell prize awarded by the Bibliographical Society of America every other year for the best publication in British periodicals. Work in the field includes studies of manuscript culture and scribal publication along with studies of print media.  Dissertations directed in this area include those by Amy E. Winans and Steven Thomas.

Race and Ethnicity Studies

Early African American studies, Native American Studies, Asian American studies.  Dissertations directed in these fields include those by Mathew RudeWalker, Youngsuk Chae, Cedrick May, Elizabeth Archuleta, Amy E. Winans, and Rochelle Zuck.